Eagle Brewery, Arundel

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Brewery Yard, Brewery Hill, Arundel c1990

Lambert & Norris Ltd, The Eagle Brewery, Arundel by Pat Saunders

Introduction

Situated in Tarrant Street is the pub, the Eagle, and beside it is a narrow lane, called Brewery Hill. This leads towards the river, and at the bottom of the hill, a pair of large wooden gates opens out onto a yard. Surrounding the yard are buildings of the former Eagle Brewery. The site has a complex and interesting history, with the earliest reference dating back to 1733. Then it was called the Old Brewery, and was being sold by Phillip Newman to Henry Caplin. Mr. Caplin retained the freehold until 1744.

From the 1770s to the 1840s, two families were prominent in the activities of the brewery site. These were the Puttocks and the Constables. About 1770, George and Thomas Junior, sons of Thomas Constable, a carpenter and timber merchant, were undertennants of a Storehouse and yards, along with Thomas Coote. In 1771 Edward Puttock was the tenant of the Brewhouse, vaults and coalpens, and his main occupation was that of brewer. He did also invest in assorted pieces of farmland in the surrounding countryside; in much the same way as the Constables, who also owned various houses in Arundel. George Constable, in 1771, was acting as agent for John Guile and as executor for the will of William Guile. He received £750 from Richard Coote for a half capital share of the Old Brewhouse. This was later bought by Stephen Wise in 1810.

In August 1780 Edward Puttock, purchased the leasehold of the Brewhouse, plus a building called the Green Stall, which was in the tenancy of James Armstrong. In 1782, he purchased a further piece of land, with the general aim of building up a substantial holding of properties. In 1790 he is noted with buying the Bull Inn at Petworth, which he subsequently renamed The Star. This remained with the Puttock family until 1818. (In 1834 this pub was acquired by George and Robert Henty of Westgate Brewery, Chichester.)

Freehold of the old Brewery, came into Edward Puttock’s ownership in 1798. In 1805, he decided to make this over to his sons, George and Edward Bowden Puttock, for the sum of £1,000. The conveyance named James Constable, builder, as the brothers’ trustee. Edward Puttock died sometime before 1811, his will being proved on 6th March 1811. The various other properties that he acquired, left his family with a considerable estate, valued at £5,000.

The Puttock Family

Edward Puttock’s estate was divided into four portion, with one portion going George Puttock plus £1,500. Edward’s second son, Edward Bowden Puttock received a quarter plus £500. The income of the third quarter was made over to Elizabeth and her husband Thomas Constable Junior, plus £750. Also provided for in Edward Puttock’s will were his widow Mary, who received a lifetime income of £300 a year, plus all the household effects. The three grandchildren were Mary Puttock Boniface, Frances Boniface and William Halsted Boniface.

From the early 1800s until about 1840, George and Edward Bowden Puttock maintained a business with Thomas Constable Junior. A number of their dealings are described in the account of the Constables. Namely a loan of £200 to John Boxold, a publican, to enable him to purchase a piece of ground in Arundel. Thomas Constable Junior was involved in administering a trust fund for Mary Puttock Boniface, along with George and Edward Bowden Puttock, in which money was loaned from it to the Commissioners for Arundel. The debt to the trust fund was eventually repaid by Edward Bowden Puttock and Thomas Constable. The relevant documents indicate that Mary P. Boniface died a spinster on 8th April 1852.

The Puttock brothers also held property in co-ownership with Thomas Constable Junior. One particular property was a stable in Littlehampton leased by Thomas Lutten. In 1826, Cornelius Howard of Littlehampton, a cordwainer, reached an understanding with Puttock and Constable. Howard wanted to build a workshop next to this property. Inadvertently this new building impinged on the 4 inch space allowed as ‘drip room’ for the stable. Puttock and Constable agreed that Howard could rent this space for the sum of one shilling a year.

However, the Puttock brothers did operate their own independent business ventures. each buying up various properties to create their own individual estates. Part of George Puttock’s estate included farm land at Yapton and Binsted, which was acquired on his marriage to Susanna Gibbs. She was the daughter of William and Mary Gibbs, and was baptised in Yapton parish church on 7th February 1779.

When George Puttock made his will in 1823, he later added a codicil which concerned the property at Yapton. He had considered the property to be his own, but had subsequently discovered that his wife was entitled wholly to part of it and had some claims on other parts. As Susanna survived her husband she took possession of the Yapton properties, whilst the rest of George Puttock’s estate was converted into capital. The trustees of George Puttock’s will were his brother Edward Bowden Puttock, his son George Puttock Junior and his son-in-law, Henry James Parsons, husband of Mary Gibbs Puttock.

Edward Bowden Puttock survived his brother by some sixteen years, and died in 1845. He had two children that survived into adulthood, one son George Bowden Puttock and a daughter Mary Ford Puttock who married John Neale. By the 1830s Edward Bowden Puttock was being described as a gentleman rather than as a brewer. By acquiring property he had elevated his social status. His will of 1845 mentions a farm at Middleton. It is also known that Edward Bowden Puttock bought various plots of copyhold land in Amberley from Edmund Searle for £1,100 on 6th October 1830.

It seems that at some time, Edward Bowden Puttock’s son George Bowden must have borrowed £1,100, on a mortgage from his father. For some reason or other he defaulted on the repayments of £4-10s per cent per annum. It could be that a business venture he had entered into had failed. However, shortly before Edward Bowden Puttock’s death on 22nd December 1845, a matter of a fortnight, he made a deed of gift to George Bowden Puttock, of this £1,100 plus the copyhold lands at Amberley. This was described as a deed of natural paternal love by Edward Bowden Puttock for his son.

In 1828, Edward Bowden Puttock formed a partnership with Robert Watkins, probably as a result of his brother George’s death. In this same year they bought the Old Brewhouse from Stephen Wise. Following this, plans were set in motion for the building of a new brewery on the site (1830-2). Robert Watkins was also the Steward for the Duke of Norfolk and acted as his agent. A point of fact not missed by other local brewers, who took strong objection to his involvement in the building of the new brewery. A dozen brewers headed by James Corfe of the Anchor Brewery, Littlehampton, and including George Constable of the Swallow Brewery Arundel, petitioned the Duke of Norfolk, complaining to the effect that Robert Watkins could bring undue pressure to bear on the Duke’s behalf through the brewery business at the Eagle Brewery. For this was a time of social upheaval due to the political reforms of the day.

In 1839, (which could have been shortly after the death of George Puttock’s son George), Edward Bowden Puttock and Robert Watkins decided to sell the Eagle Brewery. It was bought by William Duke and William Osborn for £1,900. Duke & Osborn Partnership.

The transfer of the Eagle Brewery to the partnership of Duke and Osborn may have been influenced by the fact that William Duke was married to Robert Watkins daughter, Mary Rebecca. A sum of £8,000 had been used in drawing up their marriage settlement. William Osborn was connected to William Duke through marriage. In 1825, William Osborn had married Mary Shaft Duke, by license at Leominster Parish Church; they had one daughter who survived her parents and was one of the executors of William Osborn’s estate in 1872. It was William Osborn who was the most involved in the brewing part of the partnership; and dealt with everyday matters such as when he appeared before Chichester City Bench on 10th September 1849 to make an assurance that a new tenant would be found for the City Arms in North Street, Chichester, as the previous licensee was considered unsuitable.

William Duke was either described as a gentleman, or by his profession, that of a solicitor. Up until 1851 he and his family were resident in Arundel. Both he and William Osborn were involved in church matters. Osborn was a churchwarden in 1845 and 1846, while Duke had been churchwarden between 1842 and 1844. After 1851, William Duke took up residence in Chichester, going to worship at the new church of St.John’s Chapel. The house he bought was Pallant House, on the corner of North and East Pallant. This was purchased from Joseph and Caroline Godman on a mortgage which was discharged in the 1880s.

Brewing in the 19th century could be a high risk venture, although it could return high profits. To offset loses though, other business ventures were pursued. Farming often being associated with brewing. Like the Puttocks and Constables before them, Osborn and Duke as a partnership invested in properties and not necessarily public houses. Individually, though, each partner was free to buy their own property.

By 1871, in the census for that year, William Duke is described as “Solicitor & Attorney” and also as “High Bailiff of the County Court and Landowner”. The accounts drawn up of his estate for Probate in 1896 following his death, lists 120 items of property, houses and tenements rented out, as well as farmland in the surrounding countryside. Items 69 and 70 concern Pallant House and the offices opposite in North Pallant, Chichester. These were eventually sold at auction (Pallant House in 1904 for £1,500). In 1891, a second mortgage of £800 was secured on Pallant House by William Duke.

Together Duke and Osborn had joint ownership of a beerhouse in St.Pancras, Chichester, called the Black Horse. The freehold of this property, consisting of two dwelling houses, belonged to the Custos and Poor of St.Mary’s Hospital. The rent to the Custos for the first dwelling was three shillings a year, and for the second, one shilling plus two fat hens, paid at Michaelmas. These had been bought at auction for £205 in 1843, when Robert Watkins had put them up for sale. He had purchased them separately in 1834, the first from Elizabeth Rosetter, and the second from George (1) Gatehouse. George Farhill was the lifehold tenant of both.

Another property that George (1) Gatehouse had owned, were a group of six dwelling houses in Tower Street, Chichester. Duke and Osborn purchased these in 1870 from Richard Apps for £140. Richard Apps had bought them from George’s son and heir Richard in 1851. William Duke retained these houses after the death of William Osborn. They were eventually sold in 1904 by Mrs Mary Watson, daughter, and executor of William Duke.

Another of the Duke and Osborn properties was the Gardener’s Arms at Leominster. Formerly a private house that had been owned by William Bridger, being bequeathed to his son John (a labourer). John’s son, Henry Bridger (a cattle dealer), then inherited, and used it as security for a mortgage of £300 from Thomas Duke (the Younger) in 1849. The mortgage was redeemed in 1854 and the following year Henry Bridger pulled down the old building and built two new houses. A further mortgage of £300 was obtained by Henry Bridger from Charles Duke of Earnly (yeoman). After Henry Bridger’s death, his widow Sarah conveyed the property to William Duke in 1857.

William Osborn was party to this deed, but it was William Duke who was responsible for repaying the mortgage to Charles Duke. Between 1860 and 1862, William Duke defaulted on the mortgage (this could have been due to cash supply problems rather than any serious financial difficulties). During this period the property was conveyed to the widow Emma Olliver (daughter of Sarah and Thomas Duke). With the debt paid off in 1862 the property was reconveyed back to William Duke.

The Gardener’s Arms was one of the public houses, in 1873 that was conveyed with the Eagle Brewery, to Henry Harrison of Surbiton, Surrey (gentleman). The consideration for this property was £800. Harrison, being a gentleman probably purchased the Eagle Brewery as a business investment, and did not involve himself in its day-to-day running. In 1878, the Eagle Brewery and its tied estate were sold by Harrison to the partnership of Lambert and Norris. The further history of the Gardener’s Arms reflects the changes in the Brewery ownership. The consideration for the Gardener’s Arms being again £800. Isaac Cowley Lambert used it to secure a mortgage of £600, which was repaid in 1882.

Lambert & Norris

Little is known about Isaac Cowley Lambert or why he formed a partnership with Edward Thomas Norris. In 1878 when Henry Harrison sold the Eagle Brewery and its tied estate of 22 pubs to Lambert and Norris. Lambert was described as a gentleman, resident at Telham Court, Battle. As a partnership they sought to expand the business, by acquiring individual pubs and beerhouses. During the 1880s they briefly owned the Old Shirley Brewery, near Southampton, trading under the title of “Bass and Co.” This brewery and a property called “Osborne House”, Woolston, were sold in 1886 to the brewer, Walter John Complin of Holybourne Brewery, Alton, Hampshire.

Nearer to home, in 1889 Lambert and Norris bought the former brewery and tied estate of Atkey’s East Walls Brewery from Royds and Marsden. Pubs acquired through this purchase included the Bush Tavern in the Hornet, the” Bull” in Market Avenue and the Rainbow Inn in St.Paul’s Road, Chichester. An example of other pubs acquired individually was the Dell Hole (where the “Hope” now stands in Spitalfields Road), which was purchased from William Duke in 1886. Each partner did subsequently purchase and retain pubs in their own right, which were separate from the business. In December 1921, Isaac Cowley Lambert was named as owner of the beerhouse The Currier’s Arms in Little London, Chichester, being valued at £337-14s.

In 1898 the partnership formed a limited liability company in line with the then current Company’s Act passed by the Government. The company had a nominal capital standing of £140,000. There is little evidence of what Lambert’s activities were in the company. With Norris though, he was appointed as the first managing director with a salary of £700 a year.

The Edwardian era was an uncertain time for many brewers due to Britain being affected by an economic depression. The company survived this, but hit a financial crisis in 1909. Cash flow problems resulted from the loss of two brews in the autumn, due to poor quality malt being used. In the spring of 1910, an agreement was reached with Friary, Holroyd & Healy's Breweries Ltd of Guildford, whereby they effectively took control of Lambert & Norris Ltd. The firm continued as a subsidiary company until its voluntary liquidation in 1935.

From 1910 all brewing ceased at the Eagle Brewery. Lambert & Norris Ltd was then supplied with beer from Guildford. By October 1910, a Friary report records that Lambert & Norris were supplied with 9,071 barrels of beer (value £9,436-15s-1d) and 17,174 doz. pints of bottled beer (along with 24,467 gallon crates (total value £2,370-7s-8d)). The beer being supplied was estimated to cost 2/- a barrel more than the beer previously brewed at the Eagle Brewery. The take-over of Lambert & Norris Ltd was achieved through a swap of Lambert & Norris shares for those of Friary, Holroyd & Healy Breweries Ltd. In addition Norris became a director on the Friary board.

Edward Thomas Norris died suddenly at the early age of 55. His death occurred while he was riding in the hunter class at the Arundel Horse Show in August 1911. He had been very involved with the Society that ran the Horse Show, being at one time, one of its vice-presidents. He was a former Mayor of Arundel. He left an estate of the gross value £87,033 of which net personality was sworn at £54,630. A relatively modest estate for a brewer of that time. It did include the pubs, The Globe, Chichester, and the Noah’s Ark, Lurgashall, which his widow Jessie Sarah Norris sold to Friary in November 1914.

After the company’s liquidation in 1935, Friary, Holroyd and Healy Breweries Ltd retained the Eagle Brewery site as a depot until 1955. After this, half of the Westgate Brewery site at Chichester was available for use as a depot. This had easier vehicle access than Arundel.

Appendix 1 - A Condensed History

  • 1733 earliest record; Phillip Newman, brewer sold the brewery to Henry Caplin for £500. Called the ‘Old Brewery’.
  • 1744 executors of Henry Caplin (William Collins, Henry & Grace Tapner) (Mary Caplin wife of Henry was formerly the widow of Phillip Newman) sold the brewery to John Williams for £500.
  • 1750 John Williams sold a half share capital of the brewery to William Guile, one of two tenants; the other being Richard Coote.
  • 1771 on the death of William Guile, his executors John Guile, John Edmonds and John Champion sold his half share to Sir John Shelly, (later a Privy Councillor), for £750.
  • (1771 the Old Brewhouse was bought by Richard Coote for £750).
  • 1775 the property formed part of the marriage settlement, when Sir John Shelly married Elizabeth Woodstock.
  • 1780 the brewery was sold to Thomas Goble for £420.
  • 1780 ownership contested by Richard Coote (there were two, father & son) who had paid George Constable the £750 in 1771. George Constable (carpenter) was acting as an agent for John Guile. (In later documents

Richard Coote is credited with ownership of the Old Brewhouse)

  • [Richard Coote a churchwarden in 1789; George Constable a churchwarden in 1790 & 1791; in 1978 Richard Coote & Thomas Constable Junior were churchwardens.]
  • c.1782 death of Thomas Goble
  • 7/8 Oct. 1783 John Goble (brother & heir of Thomas Goble) sold the brewery freehold to Daniel Digance of Arundel, merchant.
  • 7/8 April 1784 lease & release between John Goble and Daniel
  • 28 Feb 1786 (multiple ownership) between Daniel Digance, Susannah Sparks (wife of John) John and Richard Sparks.
  • 28 March 1794 Daniel Digance to Thomas Parlott Digance & Sparks mortgage to John Smallpiece.
  • 28 Sept. 1798 two tenement houses belonging to the brewhouse and occupied by the undertennants Thomas Smith and William Briant were bought from the trustees of Daniel Digance by Edward Puttock.
  • 29 Sept. 1798 brewery site freehold conveyed to Edward Puttock in collaboration with William Carleton (the later died intestate in 1801 causing problems to arise in 1832).


SALE PARTICULARS, 1872 ( Ref:S.P. 79)

  • Angmering; “Lamb”, p.h.
  • Arundel; EAGLE BREWERY, “Brewer’s Arms”, 3 houses & 2 shops Tarrant St, “Heart-in-Hand” (a beerhouse, acquired 1848)
  • Bognor Regis; “Globe” beerhouse (acquired 1868), “Claremont Hotel”
  • Chichester; “City Arms” p.h. North Street, “White Horse Inn”, North Street, moiety “Black Horse” beershop St.Pancras
  • Durrington; “Half Moon” p.h.
  • Felpham; “Brewer’s Arms’ p.h. (included a brewhouse, acquired 1839)
  • Funtington; “Richmond Arms”, West Ashling
  • Hampshire; “The Navy and Friends”, Havant St, Portsea
  • Leominster; “Six Bells”, p.h.
  • Littlehampton; “Dolphin Hotel” & adjoining property, “Nelson & Victory”, 5 Norfolk Road
  • Patching; “Horse & Groom” p.h. (acquired 1841)
  • Petworth; “Mason’s Arms” p.h. (acquired 1841)
  • Pulborough; “Railway Hotel”, p.h.
  • Salvington; “Half Moon”, p.h. (acquired 1839)
  • Shoreham New; “White Lion”,p.h.
  • Storrington; “Half Moon”, p.h.
  • Westbourne; “Harvest Home”, p.h. Prinsted
  • Worthing; “White Hart”, p.h. Montague St., (Properties taken over by H Harrison, 1872), “Globe”, Bognor (previous owners 1850-1867 Henty; 1867 Thomas Constable) (6 pubs & Eagle brewery; consideration £6,280.)

Sources

For summary;- Add.Ms 20,602; 20,604 - 20,608; 20,612/13; 20,617; 25,816 - 21; Par 8/9/1 (W.S.R.O.) Puttock family Add.Ms 26,334; STC1/47 p327; Ms 11,346; C5 - 7; Add.Ms 16,027; 28,646; STC1/53 p244; H & C 444, 445, 449; STClll/wfl27 Duke & Osborn Epl/9; mm/p/p277 & 279; Add.Ms 13,880 & 13,883; 13,108 & 9; 16,028; 2180 - 2191 13,812; 13,816; 13,818; 13,819; 13,822; 13,825; 13,826; 13,829. Raper archives (W.S.R.O.) Lambert & Norris Add.Ms. 14,184; 17,700 - 7; 14,354; 14,355 & 14,360; 16,745; 2190 -1. (W.S.R.O.) Winchester records office 67M83/52/3-4 the ‘Times’ 18 Dec 1911 West Sussex Gazette Allied Breweries history project.